Main Article Content

Maimoona Arshad
Mehwish Kanwal
Sundas Khabir


Governments in developing countries face financial constraints to ensure supply of clean drinking water. They may benefit from increasing water charges for those who are be willing to pay little extra in lieu of their demand for improvement in water quality and service. To check the plausibility of this proposal, we investigated drinking water supply and quality, and well- off consumers demand for improved service delivery in Shah-Rukun-e-alam and Mumtazabad towns in Multan city of Pakistan. Qualitative data obtained through a questionnaire survey was analyzed using descriptive and regression techniques. Qualitative information obtained through semi structured interviews was helpful in designing survey questionnaire and to elaborate quantitative results. Results reveal that the respondents accord high importance to the provision of safe drinking water than to other daily household needs. The demand for improvement in water supply parameters exceeds the demand for improvements in water quality parameters, with the reliable supply being the most demanded improvement. Majority realize the government’s budget constraints in improving service delivery. Most respondents would pay PKR 100 in addition to what they are paying now. Their willingness to pay (WTP) this amount correlates with their awareness on water and health nexus, and depends household income, number of children under 14 years age and awareness of actual water quality tested through laboratory. Besides recommending raise of water charges by PKR 100 per month per household in both towns, the service quality improvement may consider interventions such as mobile water testing laboratory and awareness campaigns motivate citizens to pay for safe drinking water.

Article Details

How to Cite
Arshad, M., Kanwal, M., & Khabir , S. (2021). PUBLIC DEMAND FOR IMPROVED URBAN WATER SUPPLY SERVICES IN MULTAN:A CRITICAL REVIEW PAPER. Dinasti International Journal of Education Management And Social Science, 2(2), 378-394.


Ahmad, I., ul Haq, M., & Sattar, A. (2010). Factors Determining Public Demand for Safe Drinking Water (A Case Study of District Peshawar). PIDE Working Papers, (58), 1–34.
Ahmad, J., Goldar, B. N., Mishra, S., & Jakariya, M. (2008). Willingness to Pay for Arsenic-Free, Safe Drinking Water in Bangladesh. Dhaka: The World Bank.
Akram, A., & Olmstead, S. (2011). The Value of Household Water Service Quality in Lahore, Pakistan. Environmental and Resource Economics, 49(2), 173-198. doi: 10.1007/s10640-010-9429-7
Alberini, A., & Cooper, J. (2000). Applications of the Contingent Valuation Method in Developing Countries. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation.
Asim, S., & Lohano, H. D. (2015). Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Tap Water Services in Karachi, Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review, 507-524.
Changa Pani. (2011). Changa Pani: An Urban Water and Sanitation Solution - Early Impacts and Essential Responses: Urban Unit, Water and Sanitation Agency Lahore, Anjuman Samaji Behbood, Union Council 60.
Cosgrove, W. J., & Rijsberman, F. R. (2000). World Water Vision: Making Water Everybody’s Business. London: Earthscan.
Demena, M., Workie, A., Tadesse, E., Mohammed, S., & Gebru, T. (2003). Water Borne Disease: For the Ethiopian Health Center Team (E. P. H. T. Initiative, Trans.) Module: Haramaya University, USAID, Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center, Ethiopia Ministry of Health, Ethiopia Ministry of Education.
Fissha, M. (2006). Household Demand for Improved Water Service in Urban Areas: The Case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Master of Science in Economics (Environmental and Resource Economics), Addis Ababa University.
Government of Pakistan. (2011). Pakistan Economic Survey 2010-11. Islamabad: Finance Division, Government of Pakistan.
Government of Pakistan. (2013). Pakistan Economic Survey 2012-13. Islamabad: Finance Division, Government of Pakistan.
Government of Punjab. (2006). Urban Water Supply and Sewerage Reform Strategy: Status Quo Report Multan. Lahore: Government of Punjab, Pakistan.
Haq, M., Mustafa, U., & Ahmad, I. (2008). Household ’ s Willingness to Pay for Safe Drinking Water : A Case Study of Abbottabad. The Pakistan Development Review, 46(4).
Hussainy, A. S. (2007). Relationship Between Community Health Behavior, Water & Sanitation Facilities in a Peri Urban Area of Lahore, Pakistan. Lahore: Punjab Urban Research Programme (Urban Unit).
Loomis, J., & Ekstrand, E. (1997). Economic Benefits of Critical Habitat for the Mexican Spotted Owl: A Scope Test Using a Multiple-Bounded Contingent Valuation Survey. Journal of Agricultural & Resource Economics, 22(2), 356- 366.
Majeed, Z., & Piracha, A. (2011). Water Conservation of Pakistan’s Agricultural, Municipal and Industrial Water. International Journal of Water Resources and Arid Environments, 1(3), 232-238.
Miah, A. (1993). Applied Statistics, a Course Handbook for Human Settlements Planning. Bangkok: Asian Institute of Technology.
MICS. (2018). Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2017-18: Survey Findings Report. Islamabad: Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Planning, Development and Special Initiatives, Govenrment of Pakistan
Ministry of Environment. (no date). Pakistan National Behaviour Change Communication Strategy and Action Plan for Safe Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (2010 – 2015). Islamabad: Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan.
PBS. (2017). Province Wise Provisional Results Of Census – 2017. Islamabad: Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Planning, Development and Special Initiatives, Govenrment of Pakistan.
PCRWR. (2009). Water Safety Plans for Community Water Supply A Resource Manual Provision of Safe Drinking Water for All. Islamabad: Pakistan Council Research in Water Resources, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of Pakistan
PBS. (2016). Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey (2014-5) (S. Division, Trans.) National / Provincial /District. Islamabad: Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan.
Tahir, M. A., Akram, C. M., Hasan, F. U., & Farooque, M. (2010). Technical Assessment Survey Report of Water Supply Schemes. Islamabad: Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, Government of Pakistan.
Um, M., Kwak, S., & Kim, T. (2002). Estimating Willingness to Pay for Improved Drinking Water Quality Using Averting Behavior Method with Perception Measure. Environmental and Resource Economics, 21(3), 285-300. doi: 10.1023/a:1014537330423
Wang, H., Xie, J., & Li, H. (2008). Domestic Water Pricing With Household Surveys: A Study of Acceptability and Willingness to Pay in Chongqing, China. Sustainable Rural and Urban Development Team, Development Research Group, The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper 4690.
Welsh, M. P., & Poe, G. L. (1998). Elicitation Effects in Contingent Valuation: Comparisons to A Multiple Bounded Discrete Choice Approach. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 36(2), 170-185.
WHO. (no date). Water for Health: Taking Charge Water Sanitation Health. Geneva: World Health Orginazation.
WHO. (2001). WHO World Water Day Report. Geneva: World Health Orginazation.
Zhang, W. (2011). Measuring the Value of Water Quality Improvements in Lake Tai, China. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 12(9), 710-719. doi: 10.1631/jzus.A11b0157