LOOKING FOR THE FORM OF INDONESIAN DEMOCRACY: STUDY OF PANCASILA IDEOLOGY TOWARDS CONCURRENT ELECTIONS IN 2024

Main Article Content

Osbin Samosir

Abstract

Indonesia’s democracy has taken huge leaps since the starting of reformation in 1998, compared to Soeharto’s authoritarian ruling (New Order) from 1966 to May 21, 1998, and during Soekarno’s ruling from the country’s independence in 1945 until 1966. One year after Soeharto’s fall on May 21, 1998, Indonesia held its first democratically election on June 7, 1999. The election was contested by 48 political parties. In 2004, Indonesia for the first time held its direct presidential election. One year later, Indonesia held its first regional elections, where voters directly elect governors, regents and mayors. The question is on whether the current democratic practices have been in accordance with all democratic values as intended by Pancasila ideology as the basic foundation for Indonesia in all political actions? Pancasila: 1). The belief in one God, 2). Just and civilized humanity, 3). Indonesian unity, 4. Democracy under the wise guidance of representative consultation, 5). Social justice for all peoples of Indonesia. The country’s founding fathers formulated the understanding of democracy based the traditional practices of democracy at the grassroots level which have lasted for centuries throughout the country. However what happens now is that Indonesia just imitated the posture of Western/European democracy. It turns out that Indonesian democracy is very fragile because it does not have a tradition of democracy that grows independently from Indonesia's fertile soil itself, but democracy is taken from other cultures that have grown and developed in Europe and then transplanted in Indonesian soil. Therefore, the format for direct elections in Indonesia must be reviewed for improvement.

Article Details

How to Cite
Samosir, O. (2021). LOOKING FOR THE FORM OF INDONESIAN DEMOCRACY: STUDY OF PANCASILA IDEOLOGY TOWARDS CONCURRENT ELECTIONS IN 2024. Dinasti International Journal of Education Management And Social Science, 2(4), 676-686. https://doi.org/10.31933/dijemss.v2i4.831
Section
Articles

References

Alam, Wawan Tunggul. Sukarno vs. Hatta. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2003.
Almond, Gabriel A., "Socialization, Culture and Political Participation", in Mohtar Mas'oed and Colin MacAndrews (eds.), Comparison of Political Systems, Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 2000,
_______, Gabriel A. and G. Bigham Powell, Jr. Comparative Politics, System, Process and Policy, second edition, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1978
Anderson, Benedict and Audrey Kahin (eds). Interpreting Indonesia Politics: Thirteen Contributions to the Debate. Cornell Modern Indonesia Project, Ithaca, New York, 1982.
Brown, Bernard E. and Roy C. Macridis, eds. Comparative Politics: Notes and Readings, 8th edition. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1996.
Budiardjo, Miriam. Basics of Political Science. Jakarta: Publisher PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 1993.
________, Miriam, Democracy in Indonesia: Parliamentary Democracy and Pancasila Democracy (Collection of Writings). Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 1990.
________, Miriam (ed.). Symposium on Capitalism, Socialism, Democracy. Jakarta: Publisher PT Gramedia, 1984.
Burns, Edward McNall, et al. Western Civilization: Their History and Their Culture. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984.
Dahl, Robert A. Democrcy and Its Critics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.
____, Robert A. On Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989
Dahm, Bernard. Sukarno and the Independence Struggle. Jakarta: LP3ES, 1987.
Emil Salim, "Democracy in Indonesia moving from stagnation to regression" in thejakartapost.com, Monday, September 28, 2020.
Feith, Herbert. The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia. Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press, 1962.
Fuqoha and Sukendar, "Dynamics of Islamic Social and Political Movement in the 2019 Indonesian Presidential Election" in the Proceedings of the National Conference of Administrative Sciences. Bandung: STIA LAN Bandung, October 2018.
Hatta, Mohammad. Collection of Essays (I). Publisher of "Bulan Bintang", Jakarta, 1952.
_____, Mohammad, "Pendjadjahan and National Problems", Daulat Ra'jat No. 11, 30 December 1931.
____, Mohammad, "Indonesia In Perhoeboengan Doenia", Daulat Ra'jat No. 40, 20 October 1932.
____, Mohammad, "Collectivisme Toea and Baroe", Daulat Ra'yat No. 75, 10 October 1933.
Center for Political Studies (Puskapol) UI. The results of the Asian Democracy Index Research: The Case of Indonesia in 2014. UI Postgraduate, Jl Salemba Raya, Central Jakarta, Friday (12/12/2014).
Collection of Minutes of Sessions from the Indonesian Independence Preparatory Investigation Agency (BPUPKI) (29 May 1945 - 16 July 1945) and the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) (18 and 19 August 1945) relating to the Compilation of the 1945 Constitution. Jakarta: State Secretariat of the Republic of Indonesia, [without year]).
Kahin, George McTurnan, Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Kuala Lumpur: Language and Library Council of the Malaysian Ministry of Education, 1980.
Kahin, Audrey. Rebellion to Integration: West Sumatra and the Indonesian Polity, 1926-1998. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1999.
_____, Audrey R. Regional Dynamics of the Indonesia Revolution: Unity from Diversity. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985.
Khan, Rais A., et al. An Introduction to Political Science, revised edition. Georgetown, Ontario: Irwin-Dorsey Limited, 1977.
Kleden, Ignas. Pancasila, Ideology and Weltanschauung (paper). Delivered at the KWI Lay Apostolic Commission Workshop on October 1, 2019 at Atmajya Catholic University, Jakarta.
Honorary Council Performance Report for the 2020 Election. Jakarta: DKPP RI, 2020.
Honorary Council Performance Report for the 2019 Election. Jakarta: DKPP RI, 2019.
Laffan, Michael. History of Islam in the Archipelago. Yogyakarta: Bentang Pustaka, 2015.
Leeds, C. A., Political Studies, 2nd edition. London: MacDonnald & Evans, Ltd., 1975.
Magnis-Suseno SJ, Franz. Seeking the Figure of Democracy: A Philosophical Study. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 1995.
_______________, Franz, "The Ideals of Bung Hatta State", paper in a national seminar on Dissecting Bung Hatta's Struggle Thought. National Archives of the Republic of Indonesia, 14 August 2002.
Maarif, Ahmad Syafii. Islam in the Frame of Indonesianness and Humanity: A Historical Reflection. Jakarta: Mizan, 2015.
Mazour, Anatole G. and John M. Peoples. Men and Nations: A World History, 3rd edition. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975.
Meyer, Thomas. Democracy: An Introduction to Application. Jakarta: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Indonesian Representative Office, 2005.
Nasution, Adnan Buyung. The Aspirations of Constitutional Government in Indonesia. Jakarta: Grafiti, 1995.
Panji Anugerah. Asian Democracy Index: The 2014 Case of Indonesia. Jakarta: Center for Political Studies (Puskapol) UI, 2014.
Profiles of Members of the House of Representatives and Members of the Regional Representative Council of the Republic of Indonesia for the period 2014 - 2019. Jakarta: General Election Commission, 2014.
Profiles of Members of the House of Representatives and Members of the Regional Representative Council of the Republic of Indonesia for the period 2019 - 2024. Jakarta: General Election Commission, 2019.
Rauf, Maswadi. Deliberation for Consensus: A Way of Determining Political Policy in Political Development in Indonesia. Jakarta: UIPress (no year ).
Minutes of the Session of the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Efforts for Indonesian Independence (BPUPKI) Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI). Jakarta: State Secretariat of the Republic of Indonesia, 1995.
Silalahi, Harry Tjan. "Christian Cadres: Urgency and Challenges", in the Call to Build the Nation and the State. Basic Guidelines and Directions for Christian Political Involvement. Jakarta: PDKB Love for the Nation, 2009.
Soekarno. Under the Flag of the Revolution, Volume I. Jakarta: Publishing Committee under the Flag of the Revolution, 1964.
Soekarno. The philosophy of Pancasila according to Bung Karno. (editor Floriberta Aning). Yogyakarta: Media Pressindo, 2016.
------------. Indonesia Sues (Bung Karno's Defense Speech in front of Landraad Bandung 1930). Solo: Sasongko Publishing Agency, 1978.
Sulaeman. Moh Hatta's Democratic Thought, [dissertation]. Jakarta: Political Science UI, 2009.
Surjo, et al., Djoko. Religion and Social Change: Studies on the Relationship between Islam, Society, and Indonesian Socio-Political Structures. Yogyakarta: Center for Social and Southeast Asian Studies, UGM, 2001.
Zainuddin, A. R. Islamic Political Thought: Islam, Middle East and the Clash of Ideologies. Jakarta: Penerbit Pencil-324, 2004.